1st Psychological lab
GALTON – coefficient of correlation
DARWIN – theory of evolution
MESMER – hypnosis in treatment of mental illness
FREUD – psychoanalysis
Know difference between a Psychiatrist and Psychologist
Magico – Mystical approach – prestigious leader and followers accept without question
Rational approach – beginnings of skepticism. Must be logical
Empirical approach – reliable prediction
            Relies on scientific methodology
            Careful observation
No final or absolute truths
Methods of Psychological Science
Independent variable – cause – manipulated or controlled by experimenter
Dependent variable – effect – the measured outcome
Experimental group – exposed to the independent variable
Control group – treated just like the experimental group except for the independent variable
Sample – random – everyone has an equal chance of being selected
Can be statistically analyzed
Descriptive Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Normal curve – bell shaped curve
Theoretical distribution of scores in a population
Standard deviation – variability of scores from the MEAN
Inferential Statistics
Difference between mean of the experimental and control group must be 2 or more standard deviations from each other.
t test     p< .01 significant results
            p> .95 insignificant results
Null hypothesis – you expect to find no difference between the means.
Reject the null.
Establishes cause and effect relationship.
Correlational study
            Coefficient of correlation – prediction
            Relationship between two variables
            -1.00 - .00 - +1.00
Positive – indicates a direct relationship
Negative – indicates an inverse relationship
No causal relationship proven

Biological basis of behavior
William James – mental activity is also physiological activity.
Neuron – basic unit of the nervous system
Each neuron is a living cell with a nucleus and other parts common to all cells.
Three main parts of the neutron
dendrites – the receiving part of the nucleus
cell body (soma) – the processing part
axon – the transmitting part
Nerve – a bundle of neurons that have a specific purpose.
Transmission of the neural impulse is electrochemical.
Nerve impulses normally travel in one direction – from dendrites, through the cell body, along the axon.
At the end of the axon a chemical transmitter substance is released and crosses the synapse or synaptic gap.
Synapse – a slight physical separation across which the transmitter substance flows.
Human Brain – composed of three concentric layers. All three layers are interconnected.
Brain stem – controls the life maintaining processes – breathing, metabolism, maintaining homeostasis (normal body temperature, normal heart rate, and blood pressure).
Reticular activating system (RAS) – a collection of neurons which controls the state of arousal of the organism. Also controls muscle tone and sensory awareness.
Midbrain – Limbic system – emotional center of the brain. Controls for thirst, hunger, as well as aggression and violence. Pleasure center also located in this area.
Cerebral cortex – outermost layer of the brain. Responsible for the higher mental processes – thinking, memory, language, music, art.
Two hemispheres – for the most part activities on the left side of the body come under the control of the right hemisphere. Activities on the right side of the body come under the control of the left hemisphere.
Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes.
Frontal lobe – motor cortex
Parietal lobe – sensory cortex
Occipital lobe – visual cortex
Temporal lobe – auditory cortex
Motor area located in the frontal lobe just in front of the central fissure. Body is represented in approximately an upside down fashion.
Sensory cortex – located in the parietal lobe just behind the central fissure. This area is responsible to touch, temperature, and pain.
Visual cortex – located in the occipital lobe. Can perceive form and movement as well as light.
Auditory cortex – located in the temporal lobe. Both ears totally represented on both hemispheres.
Broca’s speech area – controls the tongue and jaw – the motor functions of speech.
Wernicke’s area – language and word comprehension.
Association areas – many large areas of the cerebral cortex that may bring together more than one sense. May also be involved in learning, memory and thinking. May also take over for other damage areas.
Corpus callosum – bridge of connecting tissue between the two hemispheres. Sometimes cut for seizure control. Creates separate brains at the level of the cerebral cortex.
Autonomic nervous system
      sympathetic division – dominant division in time of intense emotion.
      parasympathetic division – dominant division in quiet times.
What causes violence?
      Biological viewpoint
      Intrapsychic viewpoint
      Social-behavioral viewpoint
Dreams and sleep
Electroencephalogram – measures electrical activity in the brain.
Spindles – a burst of activity
Spikes – abnormal EEG pattern
Stages of sleep
Stage 1 – when you first drift off to sleep. Muscles relax, temperature drops slightly, breathing slows and becomes quite regular. Brain waves begin to slow down.
Stage 2 & 3 – relax more and brain waves slow down more.
Stage 4 – about 40 – 60 minutes after you lose consciousness. Deepest level of sleep. Alpha waves – awake but relaxed. About 10 or so cycles per second.
Delta waves – slow waves about 1-3 cycles per second.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) – most of the voluntary muscles in your body become paralyzed. Your body is incapable of moving. State at which dreaming takes place.
Dreaming seems to be a function of the right hemisphere of the brain.
Night terrors, talking and walking in your sleep takes place in stage 4 sleep.
Manifest content of dream – what the dreamer says about the dream.
Latent content of dream – the hidden, often symbolic meaning of the dream.
Phrenology – bumps on the surface of the head and behavior.

Psychology 1101 – STUDY GUIDE – TEST 3
Heredity – genetic – NATURE
Environment – NURTURE
Jensen hypothesis – sperm banks for genius offspring
Most cells in body have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Total 46
Sperm has 23
Egg has 23
Genotype – genetic makeup
Phenotype – how genetic makeup is expressed
XY – male
XX – female
Chromosome abnormalities
XXY – Kleinfelter’s syndrome. Child physically a male but with strong feminine characteristics.
XYY – SPEKS syndrome. Excess testosterone.
Violent behavior.
Trisomy 21 – Down syndrome. Child with an extra 21st chromosome. Mentally retarded.
Aminiocentesis – when amniotic fluid is withdrawn with a needle. The fluid contains cells that can be tested for biochemical and chromosomal defects.
Heredity in human intelligence
Closer the genetic relationship the higher the correlation.
Identical twins – monozygotic – one egg, one sperm
Fraternal twins – dyzygotic – two eggs, two sperms
Single gene traits – traits determined by just one set of chromosomes – like sex – male or female
Polygenic traits – traits that come from more than one pair of chromosomes. Expressed in the population in a normal distribution.
Cephalocaudal- from the head downward
Proximodestral – from the center outward
Effects of early training
Dennis and Dennis study – children don’t walk sooner with practice.
Readiness – children will acquire behaviors when they are ready.
Imprinting – work by Lorenz with ducklings.
Attachment – between child and mother
Harlow – Monkey love
  1. Infant – mother love – contact comfort is critical
  2. Peer love
  3. Heterosexual love
  4. Mother – infant love
  5. Father – infant love
Piaget – theory of cognitive development
The ability to think logically is genetically determined. It helps makes humans different from lower animals.
Two fundamental processes that are basic to human development.
Assimilation – taking something in and fitting it into one’s existing scheme (cognitive structure)
Accommodation – apply what one has learned to solve a new problem.
Piaget’s four developmental stages.
  1. Sensory – motor period
  2. Preoperational stage
  3. Stage of concrete operations
  4. Stage of formal operations
Object primacy- objects still continue to exist even though they are not seen.
Conservation – quantity of something doesn’t change even if it’s appearance does.
Study of rats raised in impoverished environments and enriched environments.
Rats raised in enriched environment – learned mazes faster, had heavier brains, and had chemically different brains.


Personality-- the characteristic way a person thinks and behaves in specific environmental situations.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Oral stage (birth-2 years) - Dependent on caretakers. Mouth is the primary source of pleasure.
Anal stage(2-3 years)- Impulsive or compulsive personality traits may develop
Phallic stage(3-5 years)- Oedipus complex and Electra complex. Latent stage- Not much happening as regards personality development Genital stage (adolescence)- Adult maturity.
Structural components of personality
ID-total personality at birth. Operates by means of the "Pleasure Principle". Seeks immediate gratification.
EGO- Self. Operates by means of the "Reality Principle". Delays gratification. Also resolves conflict between ID and SUPEREGO. SUPEREGO- Operates by means of the "Morality Principle". Denies gratification.
Ego defense mechanisms
Repression, regression, identification, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, and sublimation.
Psychological Testing
Validity- whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure. Reliability- the accuracy of a test score.
Intelligence Tests
Binet and Simon developed the first measure of intelligence in 1905 in France.
Examples of individual measures of intelligence: Stanford -Binet Intelligence Scale
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Measures of Personality:
Projective measures involve the presentation of a relatively unstructured stimulus to which the subject projects aspects of their personality.
Rorschach Inkblot Test- Ten blots of ink- subject tells the examiner everything that is seen.
Thematic Apperception Test - thirty pictures plus one blank card - subject makes up stories about each card.
Children's Apperception Test- Pictures of animals doing human like behaviors - children make up stories about what they see.
Objective measures of personality
MinnesotaMultiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)- 550 true , false questions. A diagnostic test for clinical use.
Cattell 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire- Measures 16 personality variables.
Abnormal Behavior
Early explanations of mental illness saw people as being possessed by demons.
Types of mental disorders:
Neurosis- emotional disturbance but still able to know what is real and what is not real.
Psychosis- emotional disturbance and unable to differentiate what is real from what is not real.
Dissociative Reactions:
Amnesia , Fugue, and Multiple Personality.
Somatoform Disorders: Psychosomatic, Conversion Disorder
Phobic Reactions:
Obsessive Disorder, Compulsive Disorder
Schizophrenia- Types
Simple- Undifferentiated. Catatonic
Disorganized- Hebephrenic Paran

Learning – a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.
Classical conditioning
            US (food) ------à UR (salivation)
CS (bell) + US (food) ------à UR (salivation
CS (bell) ------à CR (salivation
Extinction and spontaneous recover
Generalization – stimulus generalization
Watson’s work with Little Albert
Watson worked with his graduation assistant Rosalie Rayner.
He was able to classically conditioned to fear.
He was conditioned to fear a white rat.
Later generalized to other white furry objects.
Operant conditioning –
Thorndike’s Law of effect – rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
Rat in skinner box.
Shaping or successive approximation
Rat presses a bar for food reinforcement (reward).
Trial and error learning – superstitious behavior.
Types of reinforcers
  Positive reinforcers
  Negative reinforcers
  Primary reinforcers – food when hungry
  Secondary reinforcers – learned
  Conditioned reinforcers – secondary reinforcers – learned
Reinforcement schedules
   Continuous reinforcement
   Partial reinforcement
     Fixed – ratio schedule
     Variable – ratio schedule – most resistant to extinction
     Fixed – interval schedule
    Variable interval schedule – most resistant to extinction
Punishment decreases the frequency of a behavior
Bandura’s experiments
Observational learning
Memory – page 261
Sensory memory
Working/short-term memory
Long-term memory
Forgetting – Interference theory
Proative interference
Retroactive interference